Definition of Patent ductus

Patent ductus arteriosus or PDA  December 9, 2017 – 05:37 am
arteriosus - definition of

Definition

  • Ductus patent after 3 months of birth in a term baby.

Incidence

  • 10% of all congenital heart disease.
  • Twice more common in females
  • More in

    • Preterm
    • Low birth weight
    • High altitude
    • Rubella syndrome

Embryology

  • From left sixth aortic arch
  • Starts functioning in sixth week
  • Connects proximal left pulmonary artery artery to aorta just distal to left subclavian artery
  • Right aortic arch- right sided ductus also may be present
  • Length in neonate is 1 cm
  • Width in fetus is same as that of descending aorta. In neonate, half.
  • Persistent ductus in neonate which is as wide as descending aorta- window ductus.
  • Closure starts at pulmonary end- conical shape with ampulla.
  • Mechanisms of closure-

    • Increased oxygen
    • Decreased prostaglandin
  • Types of closure-

    • Functional-

      • Starts at 12 hours and completes at 24 hours
      • Sometimes delayed upto 3 months
    • Anatomical-

      • Migration of smooth muscle to intima followed by necrosis of intima followed by fibrosis.

Source: Heart pearls!

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If STUPID were a crime....

I'll allow the audience to form their own opinions.
Ignorance, can be cured thru education (omg,almost typoed), experience, and
even in some cases from critical self-examination.
Some people say that the definition of CRAZY is doing the
same thing over, and over, expecting different results?
I think that definition applies to stupid, too.
Definitions of stupid on the Web:
lacking or marked by lack of intellectual acuity
a person who is not very bright; "The economy, stupid!"
stupidity - a poor ability to understand or to profit from experience < -- this 1
stupidity - The property of being stupid; An act that is stupid; Obstinacy

Oh yes there is such a thing as a patent

Indeed, this is a very controversial issue right now, touching on the definition of intellectual property rights, indigenous people's rights, foreign relations between western industrial nations and the rest of the world, and international patent law itself.
If Harvard university can patent a mouse, why do you not believe there is such a thing as a food patent?
I do not just mean the...ompanies like Coca-Cola or Hersey's would have been out of business a hundred years ago if anyone could go to the patent office and get their secret formula.
Any more fallacies, misunderstandings, or bonehead assumptions you'd like me to clear up for you, Mr. PickleProduct

Ya got me

BUT,
The actus reus of theft is usually defined as an unauthorized taking, keeping or using of another's property which must be accompanied by a mens rea of dishonesty and/or the intent to permanently deprive the owner or the person with rightful possession of that property or its use.
In this case, it deprives the author of recgonition and/or compensation for the use of his product...ellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) requires that signatory countries establish criminal procedures and penalties in cases of "willful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale".
So it is a CRIMINAL ACT, not just a civil matter. While it may not be THEFT under the absolute definition, it is depriving the author of his due, and not many courts would split those hairs.

Props to Intellectual Property  — E-Commerce Times
Let's estimate this using the most inclusive definition of intellectual property: patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, customer lists, business know-how, and other secret sauce. Relationship to Market Capitalization. An oft-cited statistic …

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Patent Ductus Arteriosus
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